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What is the Theory of Multiple Intelligences? Part 1: Biological Basis
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences is based on the premise that each individual's intelligence is composed of multiple "intelligences," each of which has its own independent operating system within the brain. These intelligences include: verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.
The verbal-linguistic intelligence is the use of both written and spoken language for the purpose of communication. Those possessing the verbal-linguistic intelligence are sensitive to the meanings, sounds, and rhythms of words. They love reading, poetry, tongue twisters, puns, humor, puzzles, and riddles.
The logical-mathematical intelligence is the use of abstract relationships presented in terms of either numbers or symbols. It also includes the use of logic and analysis in the sense of logically organizing an essay or analyzing poetry. Those possessing the logical-mathematical intelligence enjoy number games, problem solving, pattern games, and experimenting. They also do well with writing that involves exposition, argumentation, definition, classification, and analysis.
The spatial intelligence is the manipulation of objects within a given space, whether that space is the size of a piece of paper, a room, a building, or a town. Those possessing the spatial intelligence respond to visual cues and they like to invent and design.
The bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to use the body effectively to solve problems. Those possessing the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence enjoy dramatics, role-playing, dancing, and physical expression.
The musical intelligence is the ability to make use of the relationship between pitch, rhythm, and timbre. Those possessing the musical intelligence enjoy playing instruments, singing, and drumming, and they like the sounds of the human voice, environmental sounds, and instrumental sounds. It has been described as hearing patterns.
The interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand the thoughts, beliefs, and intents of others and the ability to respond appropriately. Those possessing the interpersonal intelligence are social and are in tune with the feelings of others. They make excellent leaders, can help their peers, and work cooperatively with others.
The intrapersonal intelligence is a sense of self-awareness used to guide individual behavior. Those possessing the intrapersonal intelligence like to work independently. They are self-motivated and self-aware.
The naturalist intelligence is an understanding of the natural world and the ability to use that understanding productively. Those possessing the naturalist intelligence can recognize and classify elements from the natural world (e.g. farming or biological science).
The exact combination of intelligences varies from person to person. For example, one person might be strong in the verbal-linguistic and interpersonal intelligences with secondary strengths in the intrapersonal, spatial, and musical intelligences and weaknesses in the logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, and naturalist intelligences. Another person could have an entirely different combination of intelligences. Each person's makeup of intelligences is very similar to DNA; no one has exactly the same combination of intelligences.
Gardner's criteria for selecting these particular abilities as intelligences include: independence from other intelligences (within the brain); having a central set of information-processing operations; having a distinct developmental history; having roots in evolutionary history; and having a cultural basis. When Gardner says that intelligences are independent, he is referring to separate sections of the brain that control each intelligence and have distinct methods of processing information. According to an article by Tina Blythe and Gardner, each intelligence has its own "distinct mode of thinking."
Gardner's research with brain-injured adults and with autistic children has indicated that the human brain has separate areas that control separate functions. For example, Gardner described a woman who suffered a brain injury and lost the ability to speak, yet she maintained her ability to sing. This example shows that the verbal-linguistic intelligence functions separately from the musical intelligence.
Gardner makes a distinction between the isolation of each intelligence within the structure of the human brain and the isolation of the intelligences when called upon to complete real-world operations. Intelligences do not work independently of one another in a real-world setting. According to the theory, most tasks require the simultaneous use of several intelligences in order to be completed successfully. Bruce Torff offers the example of a chess player who must use logic and spatial skills to plan ahead and figure out moves and must also use interpersonal skills to figure out the opponent's defense and plan of action. The intelligences are separate entities which operate in conjunction with each other to create the whole of each individual's ability.
Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences: Seven ways to approach curriculum. Expanded Academic ASAP [on-line database]. Original Publication: Educational Leadership, 52 (3).
Blythe, T., & Gardner, H. (1990). A school for all intelligences. Educational Leadership, 47 (7), 33-37.
Campbell, L., Campbell, B., & Dickinson, D. (1992). Teaching and learning through multiple intelligences. Stanwood, WA: New Horizons for Learning.
Checkley, K. (1997). The first seven ... and the eighth: A conversation with Howard Gardner. Expanded Academic ASAP [on-line database]. Original Publication: Education, 116.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1995a). Multiple intelligences as a catalyst. English Journal, 84 (8), 16-18.
Gardner, H. (1995b). Reflections on multiple intelligences: Myths and messages. Expanded Academic ASAP [on-line database]. Original Publication: Phi Delta Kappan, 77 (3).
Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1990). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences (Tech. Rep. No. 4). New York: Center for Technology in Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 324 366).
Gray, J. H., & Viens, J. T. (1994). The theory of multiple intelligences: Understanding cognitive diversity in school. Expanded Academic ASAP [on-line database]. Original Publication: National Forum, 74 (1).
Meyer, M. (1997). The GREENing of learning: using the eighth intelligence. Wilson Select [on-line database]. Original Publication: Educational Leadership, 55.
Moll, A. (n.d.). Kentucky Department of Education. Multiple intelligences self profile [WWW]. URL: http://www.kde.state.ky.us/MI/misurvey.html (Accessed September 29, 1998).
Reiff, J. C. (1996). Bridging home and school through multiple intelligences. Expanded Academic ASAP [on-line database]. Original Publication: Childhood Education, 72 (3).
Smagorinsky, P. (1991). Expressions: Multiple intelligences in the English class. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Smagorinsky, P. (1995b). Multiple intelligences in the English class: An overview. English Journal, 84 (8), 19-26.
Torff, B. (1996). How are you smart?: Multiple intelligences and classroom practices. The NAMTA Journal, 21 (2), 31-43.
Michele R. Acosta is a writer, a former English teacher, and the mother of three boys. She spends her time writing and teaching others to write. Visit http://www.thewritingtutor.biz/articles for more articles, http://www.thewritingtutor.biz/writing_editing_service for professional writing/editing services, or TheWritingTutor.biz for other writing and educational resources for young authors, teachers, and parents.
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Behavioral Manifestations of Alzheimer?s Dementia
Alzheimer's Dementia has a combination of cognitive and behavioral manifestations. Cognitive impairment is the core problem which includes memory deficits and at least one of the following: aphasia or language problem, agnosia or problems with recognition, apraxia or motor activity problem, and impairment in executive functioning (e.g. planning, abstract reasoning, and organizing).
We are all terminally ill. It is a matter of time before we all die. Aging and death remain almost as mysterious as ever. We feel awed and uncomfortable when we contemplate these twin afflictions. Indeed, the very word denoting illness contains its own best definition: dis-ease. A mental component of lack of well being must exist SUBJECTIVELY. The person must FEEL bad, must experience discomfiture for his condition to qualify as a disease. To this extent, we are justified in classifying all diseases as "spiritual" or "mental".
Hypnosis: A Brief History
Evidence of hypnotic-like phenomena appears in many ancient cultures. The writer of Genesis seems familiar with the anaesthetic power of hypnosis when he reports that God put Adam "into a deep sleep" to take his rib to form Eve. Other ancient records suggest hypnosis was used by the oracle at Delphi and in rites in ancient Egypt (Hughes and Rothovius, 1996). The modern history of hypnosis begins in the late 1700s, when a French physician, Anton Mesmer, revived an interest in hypnosis.
Anti-Social Behaviors and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Anti-social behaviors are common with ADHD individuals. About 60% of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder kids are also oppositional or defiant. Some are even getting in trouble with the law.
Ericksons Theory of Human Development
I'm sure you've heard the term "Identity Crisis" before. It's thought of as a conflict of self and society and its introduction came from one of the most famous psychoanalyst of the 20th century.
The Iron Mask - The Common Sources of Personality Disorders
Do all personality disorders have a common psychodynamic source?
The Psychology of Torture
There is one place in which one's privacy, intimacy, integrity and inviolability are guaranteed - one's body, a unique temple and a familiar territory of sensa and personal history. The torturer invades, defiles and desecrates this shrine. He does so publicly, deliberately, repeatedly and, often, sadistically and sexually, with undisguised pleasure. Hence the all-pervasive, long-lasting, and, frequently, irreversible effects and outcomes of torture.
What is Narcissism?
A pattern of traits and behaviours which signify infatuation and obsession with one's self to the exclusion of all others and the egotistic and ruthless pursuit of one's gratification, dominance and ambition.
Countess Erszebet Bathory was a breathtakingly beautiful, unusually well-educated woman, married to a descendant of Vlad Dracula of Bram Stoker fame. In 1611, she was tried - though, being a noblewoman, not convicted - in Hungary for slaughtering 612 young girls. The true figure may have been 40-100, though the Countess recorded in her diary more than 610 girls and 50 bodies were found in her estate when it was raided.
The Special Secret of Intuition
The limbic system
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WHAT ARE BRAINWAVES?
Solution Focus Process: Solution Talk vs. Problem Talk Pt I
Solution Talk vs. Problem Talk
Gay Men Psychology
Gay men are said to be usually third or further born from the same mother. You might wish to check it out sometime. I am first born therefore less likely to become gay; also both my parents and all grandparents first born as well. What is your birth order? Therefore the tendencies have next to no chance for me, which I can tell you is a good thing; because I love women.
Self Hypnosis or Shelf Hypnosis?
Self hypnosis is usually thought of as a person listening to an audio tape, mp3, or other mass-produced media, intended to induce a willingness to absorb suggestions centered around a specific topic such as weight loss, stop smoking, etc. Unfortunately, this kind of hypnosis is generally prepared by someone who has never met the person being hypnotized, often presenting unwanted, even unpleasant imagery and suggestions. For example, if you sunburn easily, that last thing you want to hear about is a slow walk on a sunny beach. In this case, the "self" in self hypnosis simply means that you listen to it by yourself!
Precognition or Circadian Rhythm?
The bodies natural clock or circadian rhythm seems to have sensors through the brain and body. It is a perfect set of clocks, which regulate our bodies and sync to our minds. It is so incredible that some have spent entire careers trying to unlock natures secret. Some believe this is part of God's creation, other believe it is the work of a millions and millions of years of evolution. Still others have mystic explanations for it, while they debate with others who say it is all part of a planned design.
Traumas as Social Interactions
("He" in this text - to mean "He" or "She").
Balancing Brain Lobes - Mutras
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Right Brain, Left Brain
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Birds in the Room Alter Sleep Patterns of Humans
Birds have always been considered good pets of modern day humans. It seems our living in close proximity may have given us a closer bond than we know. There are many reports, which have been collected of birds having a psychic connection with their owners. Others poo poo the idea as utter non-sense, but the studies done scientifically seem to prove that there are connections between humans and birds with regards to the normal and natural telepathy abilities of both species.
You, I and We
Our life in society hovers around the concept of 'You?I? We'. The first stage is 'You-You' which is called 'dependent' stage. As a child, we are dependent on others for our needs and expect help and support from others. The dependence can be either emotional or physical. The second stage is 'I ? I', where in we attain relative freedom and corresponding changes are noticeable in terms of speech, behavior, movements, preferences, interests and perceptions.In this stage we act with absolute freedom both mentally and physically. The feeling of 'Me-Mine' will be at a high point during this stage. Typical thought processes will be as follows:
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